Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis to necro-inflammation with or without fibrosis (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), is a growing clinical liver disorder in children. Aim: The goals of this study were to characterize liver disorders associated with elevated aminotransferases and establish the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis prevalence in hypertransaminasemic children admitted to the emergency room. Methods: The medical records of 3280 children (2-17 years of age) admitted to the emergency room of Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome, and presenting with hypertransaminasemia were analysed retrospectively. Results: Elevation of serum alanine aminotransferases was present in 897 patients. Of these, 520 (58%) spontaneously normalized alanine aminotransferases, and 179/897 (20%) maintained persistently elevated alanine aminotransferases levels. Twenty-one patients were excluded because of medication or alcohol use. In the remaining 157 patients with elevated alanine aminotransferases, obesity was found in 87 (55%), viral infections in 52 (33%) and genetic diseases in 14 (9%). Obesity-related alanine aminotransferases elevation was associated with a histological diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 85% of patients. In particular, steatosis was histologically confirmed in 74 patients; 43/74 (58%) had steatohepatitis, and 12/74 (16%) had fibrosis. Conclusions: Twenty percent of children with elevated aminotransferases on routine testing may hide non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A careful diagnostic workup of persistent hypertransaminasemia in all obese subjects is warranted in the paediatric setting.
- Emergency room
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