The Authors have focused on the most important feto-neonatal and placental diseases in order to develop modern diagnostic tools which can meet the needs of clinicians (obstetricians, gynecologists, and neonatologists) for the best possible management of both the mother and the newborn. Although far from being operational instructions, it should be intended as a programmatic document providing a guideline on the issues that have cropped up in eight years of work of the APEFA group, as well as during several residential and practical classes. First of all, a synopsis is provided of the main issues concerning placental diagnosis in the newborn, as well as in case of fetal loss. A reasoned review is then provided of the main diagnostic criteria in placental pathology, in the light of therapeutical measures toward the mother (monitoring of future pregnancies) and the newborn (management of newborns at risk or with infectious disease). Legal issues in case of fetal distress at the end of pregnancy, neonatal damage and peripartum death have also been discussed with particular attention. Early and late miscarriages have also been separately examined, as well as fetal deaths. For each of these categories, a critical analysis is presented of current issues, followed by some considerations on the development of diagnostic methods and technology, and a modern diagnostic process is then outlined. Reference tables are also provided for diagnostic, auxological parameters, as well as on essential procedures. Issues concerning legal abortions and terminations of pregnancies have also been considered, with particular reference to tests and supplemental genetic and ultrasound examinations, diagnostic questions about malformations and forensic medicine assessments that are often involved with these specific categories. Malformations, fetal distress and growth retardation, sudden fetal and neonatal death, as well as embryo-pathology are all briefly dealt with also with synoptic tables. Diagnostic criteria are thus optimized and specially aimed at solving "human reproduction pathology" issues.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine