INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile or Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection represents the most common cause of healthcare-associated infection. Over the last decades, the incidence and severity of C. difficile infection is rapidly increasing, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality, and burden on health care system. Orally administered vancomycin and fidaxomicin are the therapeutic options of choice for initial C. difficile infection and fecal microbiota transplant for the recurrence infection. Furthermore, in recent years several new antibiotics with narrow-spectrum activity and low intestinal resorption have been developed, including surotomycin, cadazolid, and ridinilazol, and novel toxoid vaccines are expected to be efficacious in the prevention of C. difficile infection. Areas covered: Literature review was performed to select publications about current guidelines and phase-II/III trials on emerging drugs. These include novel antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Expert opinion: We have today a wide spectrum of promising therapeutic possibilities against infection. Pivotal future clinical trials may be crucial in developing effective strategies to optimize outcomes, mainly in high-risk population.
- Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
- Clostridium Infections/drug therapy
- Clostridium difficile/isolation & purification
- Cross Infection/drug therapy
- Drug Development/methods
- Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods
- Practice Guidelines as Topic