Diseases affecting the immune system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), are pathological conditions affecting the pediatric population and are often associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota, such as a decrease in bacterial diversity. Growing evidence suggests that gut microbiota can interfere with chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressant drugs, used in the treatment of these diseases, reducing or facilitating drug efficacy. In particular, the effect of intestinal microflora through translocation, immunomodulation, metabolism, enzymatic degradation, and reduction of bacterial diversity seems to be one of the reasons of interindividual variability in the therapeutic response. Although the extent of the role of intestinal microflora in chemotherapy and immunosuppression remains still unresolved, current evidence on bacterial compositional shifts will be taken in consideration together with clinical response to drugs for a better and personalized therapy. This review is focused on the effect of the intestinal microbiota on the efficacy of pharmacological therapy of agents used to treat IBD, JIA, and ALL.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)