The main challenge for a pediatric hemato-oncologist today is to obtain a cure for the sick child with the minimum of treatment-related complications. Children on their way to achieving adulthood face many risks after hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Continuous follow-up includes assessment of organ function, focus on vaccinations and screening for secondary malignancies. Updated treatment protocols are already adjusted according to the knowledge obtained on late effects, and the potential risks for complications are well balanced with expected benefits hopefully resulting in decreased potential risk for organ damage but still maintaining an unchanged or improved survival rate. Recent developments on pre-HSCT regimens, such as the introduction of new anticancer regimens and immunosuppressive agents will hopefully contribute to minimize the frequency and the severity of late complications. Knowledge about increased risk for long-term complications due to cancer therapy and pre-HSCT preparative regimens should encourage each caring physician to stick to follow-up protocols and treatment guidelines not only to improve the survival rate of transplanted children but also to improve their quality of life. To achieve adulthood by maintaining cognitive ability and psychosocial skills is the highest goal for an individual to become a competent member of a society. This review of late endocrine complications after HSCT focuses on growth, pubertal development, thyroid disorders and glucose metabolism in long-term survivors.
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