Endogenous and exogenous cyclicity and temperament in bipolar disorder: Review, new data and hypotheses

Athanasios Koukopoulos, Gabriele Sani, Alexia E. Koukopoulos, Matthew J. Albert, Paolo Girardi, Roberto Tatarelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this special issue dedicated to Falret and the French contributions to the concept of cyclicity in manic depressive illness, we begin with a historical overview of the development of the concept of cyclicity and its fundamental significance in manic-depressive illness and we underscore how the concept fell into neglect only to reemerge in recent years. We then look at the intimate relationship between mania and depression. The hypothesis of the primacy of mania is discussed. The thesis is presented, supported by the examination of 100 consecutive index manias, that in most cases mania is triggered by external factors acting upon hyperthymic patients, determining an exogenous cyclicity. On the other hand, in BPII patients the temperamental mood instability (cyclothymia) is an inherent and decisive factor in determining the cyclic autonomous course of the disorder. Finally, a new distinction of Bipolar Disorders, based on premorbid temperament and course of the illness, is considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-175
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume96
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006

Keywords

  • Bipolarity
  • Cyclicity
  • Temperament
  • Triggering factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Psychology(all)

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    Koukopoulos, A., Sani, G., Koukopoulos, A. E., Albert, M. J., Girardi, P., & Tatarelli, R. (2006). Endogenous and exogenous cyclicity and temperament in bipolar disorder: Review, new data and hypotheses. Journal of Affective Disorders, 96(3), 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2006.08.031