The endothelium is a continuous physical barrier that regulates coagulation and selective passage of soluble molecules and circulating cells through the vessel wall into the tissue. Endothelial cells may contact components of the complement, the kinin and the coagulation systems and their functional activity can be influenced by these interactions. Therefore, complement activation products can induce pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant responses by endothelial cells. Moreover complement can regulate the release of kinins on the endothelial cell surface influencing the vascular leakage. The aim of this review is to discuss the complex interplay that can be established among the endothelium, the complement proteins or its activation products, and the kinin system.
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