Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in arterial hypertension

P. Ferroni, S. Basili, V. Paoletti, G. Davì

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

88 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A large body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic of patients with essential hypertension. By definition, endothelial dysfunction is a functional and reversible alteration of endothelial cells, resulting from impairment in nitric oxide (NO) availability and oxidative stress. Superoxide anion is a major determinant of NO biosynthesis and also acts as a vasoconstrictor. In addition, NO synthase (NOS) can generate superoxide rather than NO in response to atherogenic stimuli ("NOS uncoupling"). Under these circumstances, NOS may become a peroxynitrite generator, leading to a dramatic increase in oxidative stress, since peroxynitrite has additional detrimental effects on vascular function by lipid peroxidation. Increased levels of biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress have been found in patients with hypertension. In particular, patients with hypertension-related microvascular changes showed increased lipid peroxidation and platelet activation when compared with patients with absent or early signs of retinopathy. Furthermore, oxidant stress has been shown to play an important role in promoting a prothrombotic state in the vascular system. For all these reasons, endothelial dysfunction is evoked in hypertensive patients as promotor of vascular progressive damage and atherosclerotic and thrombotic complications through the enhanced oxidative stress of arterial walls. This broadens the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients and explains the insufficient role of the strict BP reduction in the prevention of vascular complications, thus opening up new perspectives on the antioxidant properties of currently available antihypertensive drugs and supplementation with antioxidant principles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-231
Number of pages10
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006

Fingerprint

hypertension
Oxidative Stress
oxidative stress
Hypertension
Blood Vessels
blood vessels
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Lipid Peroxidation
nitric oxide
Nitric Oxide
lipid peroxidation
Peroxynitrous Acid
Superoxides
superoxide anion
Antioxidants
platelet activation
antioxidants
vasoconstrictor agents
retinal diseases
antihypertensive agents

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Inflammation
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Pro-coagulant status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in arterial hypertension. / Ferroni, P.; Basili, S.; Paoletti, V.; Davì, G.

In: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 16, No. 3, 04.2006, p. 222-231.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ferroni, P. ; Basili, S. ; Paoletti, V. ; Davì, G. / Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in arterial hypertension. In: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2006 ; Vol. 16, No. 3. pp. 222-231.
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