Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common cause of severe mitral regurgitation. It has been reported that MVP patients-candidates for mitral valve repair (MVRep)-showed an alteration in the antioxidant defense systems as well as in the L-arginine metabolic pathway. In this study, we investigate if oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are an MVP consequence or driving factors. Forty-five patients undergoing MVRep were evaluated before and 6 months post surgery and compared to 29 controls. Oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) forms of glutathione, and L-arginine metabolic pathway were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods while osteoprotegerin (OPG) through the ELISA kit and circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry. Six-month post surgery, in MVP patients, the GSSG/GSH ratio decreased while symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginines levels remained comparable to the baseline. Conversely, OPG levels significantly increased when compared to their baseline. Finally, pre-MVRep EMP levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls and did not change post surgery. Overall, these results highlight that MVRep completely restores the increased oxidative stress levels, as evidenced in MVP patients. Conversely, no amelioration of endothelial dysfunction was evidenced after surgery. Thus, therapies aimed to restore a proper endothelial function before and after surgical repair could benefit MVP patients.