Background: Treatment with protein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK-9i) reduced cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events in patients with hypercholesterolemia. We assessed changes in lipid profile, oxidation markers and endothelial function in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) after a 12-week treatment with a PCSK-9i. Methods: Patients with FH starting a treatment with PCSK-9i were included. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), small dense LDL (assessed by LDL score), 11-dehydro-thromboxane (11-TXB2), 8-isoprostaglandin-2alpha (8-iso-PGF2α), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) were evaluated before starting PCSK-9i treatment and after a 12-week treatment. Results: Twenty-five subjects were enrolled (52% males, mean age 51.5 years). At the 12-week assessment, we observed a 38% median reduction in TC, 52% in LDL-C, 7% in Lp(a) and 46% in LDL score. In parallel, 11-TXB2 and 8-iso-PGF2α showed a reduction of 18% and 17%, respectively. FMD changed from 4.78% ± 2.27 at baseline to 10.6% ± 5.89 at 12 weeks (p < 0.001), with RHI changing from 2.37 ± 1.23 to 3.76 ± 1.36 (p < 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for potential confounders, change in LDL score was an independent predictor of changes in FMD (β = −0.846, p = 0.015) and in 8-iso-PGF2α (β = 0.778, p = 0.012). Conclusions: Small dense LDL reduction (assessed by LDL score) is related to changes in oxidation markers and endothelial function in patients with FH treated with PCSK-9i.
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