Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its receptors are overexpressed in human Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. Here we show that in human KS IMM cell line ET-1 increased secretion and activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -3, -7, -9 and -13, as well as of membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP). ET-1 and ET-3 also enhanced the expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP-2, essential for MT1-MMP-mediated MMP-2 activation. Combined addition of both ETB receptor (ETBR) and ETAR antagonists completely blocked the ET-1-induced MMP activity. By immunohistochemistry, we observed that ET-1 increased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression and their localization at the cell surface. Treatment with both antagonists resulted also in the suppression of ET-1-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins, FAK and paxillin, which are essentials for cell motility. ET-1 induced a dose-dependent enhancement in KS IMM cell migration and MMP-dependent invasiveness that were inhibited by ET-1 receptor antagonists. The small molecule, A-182086, an orally bioavailable ETA/BR antagonist, completely inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth in KS IMM xenografts. These findings demonstrate that ET-1-driven autocrine loop is crucial for enhanced invasiveness of KS IMM cells and promote tumor growth in vivo. Such activities can be blocked by the ETA/BR antagonists, which may be effective anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor molecules for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||American Journal of Pathology|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 1 2003|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine