Energetics and biomechanics of double poling in regional and high-level cross-country skiers

Chiara Zoppirolli, Barbara Pellegrini, Lorenzo Bortolan, Federico Schena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Methods: Eight high-level (HLG) and eight regional-level (RLG) skiers performed a 5-min sub-maximal DP trial, roller skiing on a treadmill at 14 km h−1 and 2°. Energetic cost (ECDP), center of mass (COM) vertical displacement range, body inclination (θ, i.e., the angle between the vertical line and the line passing through COM and a fixed pivot point identified at feet level) and mechanical work associated to COM motion were analyzed. Pole and joint kinematics, poling forces and cycle timing were also considered.

Results: HLG showed lower ECDP than RLG, smaller COM vertical displacement range and mechanical work, whereas higher θ during the early part of the poling phase (P max) and the minimum value of COM vertical displacement resulted the COM-related parameters that better predict ECDP (AdjR2 = 0.734; P max positively related to poling force integrals and cycle duration (P 

Conclusions: A pronounced body inclination during the early poling phase and a reduced COM vertical displacement range concur in explaining the differences in ECDP found between the groups and among the skiers. A mechanically advantageous motion of COM during DP improves poling effectiveness, reduces cycle frequency and the mechanical work sustained.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the energetics and the biomechanics of double poling technique (DP) in two groups of cross-country skiers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)969-979
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2015


  • COM
  • Cross-country skiing
  • Energetic cost
  • Poling force

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Medicine(all)


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