Background: There is great interest in the use of bone substitutes to improve bone repair. We compared the osteogenic potential of lyophilized bone chips combined with platelet gel, or with platelet gel and bone marrow stromal cells, with that of lyophilized bone chips alone in the healing of a high tibial osteotomy. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed, and a standardized clinical model was applied. Thirty-three patients undergoing high tibial osteotomy to treat genu varum were enrolled and assigned to three groups. During the osteotomy, lyophilized bone chips with platelet gel were implanted into eleven patients (Group A), lyophilized bone chips with platelet gel and bone marrow stromal cells were implanted in twelve patients (Group B), and lyophilized bone chips without gel were placed in ten patients as controls (Group C). Six weeks after surgery, computed tomography-guided biopsies of the grafted areas were performed and the specimens were analyzed by histomorphometry. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed at six weeks, twelve weeks, six months, and one year after surgery. Results: Histomorphometry at six weeks showed significantly increased osteoblasts and osteoid areas in both Group A (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03, respectively) and Group B (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001) in comparison with controls, as well as increased bone apposition on the chips (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively), which was greater in Group B than in Group A (p <0.05). Group B showed significantly higher revascularization than the controls (p = 0.004). Radiographs revealed a significantly higher rate of osseointegration in Groups A and B than in the controls at six weeks (p <0.005 and p <0.0001, respectively). At the final evaluation at one year, the osseointegration was still better in Groups A and B than in Group C; however, all patients had complete clinical and functional evidence of healing. Conclusions: Adding a platelet gel or a platelet gel combined with bone marrow stromal cells to lyophilized bone chips increases the osteogenetic potential of the lyophilized bone chips and may be a useful tool in the treatment of patients with massive bone loss. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine