Because of the association between inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) and human respiratory and cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to understand the tissue damage induced by these particles. One of the cell types principally involved in the body's reaction to PM are macrophages, which remove particles in the airway passages and the lungs through phagocytosis. In fact, when macrophages are exposed to a toxic agent such as PM, they undergo a series of changes (including variations in morphology, an increase in glycolysis, and consequent lactate production and the release of cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) necessary to transform them from "resting" to "activated" macrophages. Because 1H NMR is extremely useful in monitoring, noninvasively, macrophage metabolism and because this technique has never been utilized to examine macrophage activation after exposure to PM, it was the purpose of the present study to investigate the effects of PM exposure on the RAW 264.7 stabilized macrophage cell line using 1H NMR spectroscopy. PM with a diameter 1H NMR spectroscopy is an extremely sensitive probe in observing subtle variations in macrophages after exposure to PM 2.5.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery
- Organic Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis