Enzymatic inactivation of oxysterols in breast tumor cells constraints metastasis formation by reprogramming the metastatic lung microenvironment

MA Moresco, L Raccosta, G Corna, D Maggioni, M Soncini, S Bicciato, C Doglioni, V Russo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Recent evidence indicates that immune cells contribute to the formation of tumor metastases by regulating the pre-metastatic niche. Whether tumor-derived factors involved in primary tumor formation play a role in metastasis formation is poorly characterized. Oxysterols act as endogenous regulators of lipid metabolism through the interaction with the nuclear Liver X Receptors-(LXR)α and LXRβ. In the context of tumor development, they establish a pro-tumor environment by dampening antitumor immune responses, and by recruiting proangiogenic and immunosuppressive neutrophils. However, the ability of LXR/oxysterol axis to promote tumor invasion and metastasis by exploiting immune cells, is still up to debate. In this study we provide evidence that oxysterols participate in the primary growth of orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors by establishing a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Furthermore, we show that oxysterols are involved in the metastatic spread of 4T1 breast tumors, since their enzymatic inactivation mediated by the sulfotransferase 2B1b, reduces the number of metastatic cells in the lungs of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, we provide evidence that oxysterols support the metastatic cascade by modifying the lung metastatic niche, particularly allowing the recruitment of tumor-promoting neutrophils. These results identify a possible new metastatic pathway to target in order to prevent metastasis formation in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Moresco, Raccosta, Corna, Maggioni, Soncini, Bicciato, Doglioni and Russo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Original languageEnglish
Article number02251
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasm Metastasis
Lung
Neoplasms
Reproduction
Neutrophils
Sulfotransferases
Tumor Microenvironment
Oxysterols
Licensure
Immunosuppressive Agents
Lipid Metabolism
Publications
Cell Count
Growth

Cite this

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title = "Enzymatic inactivation of oxysterols in breast tumor cells constraints metastasis formation by reprogramming the metastatic lung microenvironment",
abstract = "Recent evidence indicates that immune cells contribute to the formation of tumor metastases by regulating the pre-metastatic niche. Whether tumor-derived factors involved in primary tumor formation play a role in metastasis formation is poorly characterized. Oxysterols act as endogenous regulators of lipid metabolism through the interaction with the nuclear Liver X Receptors-(LXR)α and LXRβ. In the context of tumor development, they establish a pro-tumor environment by dampening antitumor immune responses, and by recruiting proangiogenic and immunosuppressive neutrophils. However, the ability of LXR/oxysterol axis to promote tumor invasion and metastasis by exploiting immune cells, is still up to debate. In this study we provide evidence that oxysterols participate in the primary growth of orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors by establishing a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Furthermore, we show that oxysterols are involved in the metastatic spread of 4T1 breast tumors, since their enzymatic inactivation mediated by the sulfotransferase 2B1b, reduces the number of metastatic cells in the lungs of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, we provide evidence that oxysterols support the metastatic cascade by modifying the lung metastatic niche, particularly allowing the recruitment of tumor-promoting neutrophils. These results identify a possible new metastatic pathway to target in order to prevent metastasis formation in breast cancer patients. Copyright {\circledC} 2018 Moresco, Raccosta, Corna, Maggioni, Soncini, Bicciato, Doglioni and Russo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.",
author = "MA Moresco and L Raccosta and G Corna and D Maggioni and M Soncini and S Bicciato and C Doglioni and V Russo",
year = "2018",
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T1 - Enzymatic inactivation of oxysterols in breast tumor cells constraints metastasis formation by reprogramming the metastatic lung microenvironment

AU - Moresco, MA

AU - Raccosta, L

AU - Corna, G

AU - Maggioni, D

AU - Soncini, M

AU - Bicciato, S

AU - Doglioni, C

AU - Russo, V

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Recent evidence indicates that immune cells contribute to the formation of tumor metastases by regulating the pre-metastatic niche. Whether tumor-derived factors involved in primary tumor formation play a role in metastasis formation is poorly characterized. Oxysterols act as endogenous regulators of lipid metabolism through the interaction with the nuclear Liver X Receptors-(LXR)α and LXRβ. In the context of tumor development, they establish a pro-tumor environment by dampening antitumor immune responses, and by recruiting proangiogenic and immunosuppressive neutrophils. However, the ability of LXR/oxysterol axis to promote tumor invasion and metastasis by exploiting immune cells, is still up to debate. In this study we provide evidence that oxysterols participate in the primary growth of orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors by establishing a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Furthermore, we show that oxysterols are involved in the metastatic spread of 4T1 breast tumors, since their enzymatic inactivation mediated by the sulfotransferase 2B1b, reduces the number of metastatic cells in the lungs of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, we provide evidence that oxysterols support the metastatic cascade by modifying the lung metastatic niche, particularly allowing the recruitment of tumor-promoting neutrophils. These results identify a possible new metastatic pathway to target in order to prevent metastasis formation in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Moresco, Raccosta, Corna, Maggioni, Soncini, Bicciato, Doglioni and Russo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

AB - Recent evidence indicates that immune cells contribute to the formation of tumor metastases by regulating the pre-metastatic niche. Whether tumor-derived factors involved in primary tumor formation play a role in metastasis formation is poorly characterized. Oxysterols act as endogenous regulators of lipid metabolism through the interaction with the nuclear Liver X Receptors-(LXR)α and LXRβ. In the context of tumor development, they establish a pro-tumor environment by dampening antitumor immune responses, and by recruiting proangiogenic and immunosuppressive neutrophils. However, the ability of LXR/oxysterol axis to promote tumor invasion and metastasis by exploiting immune cells, is still up to debate. In this study we provide evidence that oxysterols participate in the primary growth of orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors by establishing a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Furthermore, we show that oxysterols are involved in the metastatic spread of 4T1 breast tumors, since their enzymatic inactivation mediated by the sulfotransferase 2B1b, reduces the number of metastatic cells in the lungs of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, we provide evidence that oxysterols support the metastatic cascade by modifying the lung metastatic niche, particularly allowing the recruitment of tumor-promoting neutrophils. These results identify a possible new metastatic pathway to target in order to prevent metastasis formation in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Moresco, Raccosta, Corna, Maggioni, Soncini, Bicciato, Doglioni and Russo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

U2 - 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02251

DO - 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02251

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Frontiers in Immunology

JF - Frontiers in Immunology

SN - 1664-3224

M1 - 02251

ER -