Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens

Eugenio A. Debbia, G. C. Schito, A. Zoratti, L. Gualco, E. Tonoli, A. Marchese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A vast literature attests to the fact that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis represent the prevailing bacterial pathogens of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. Their specific incidence as causative agents of the more common syndromes is known to vary even profoundly, depending on geographic area, and the same holds true for their rates of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Europe does not escape the threat posed by the present pandemic spread of penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae although, as expected, some countries like Spain and France are highly affected and others including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian region, are relatively spared. In several sites multiple resistance has been described in S. pneumoniae with the most affected drugs being penicillin, the macrolides, co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. In H. influenzae synthesis of β-lactamases is the main resistance trait expressed. Lack of susceptibility to β-lactams dictated by a different mechanism remains extremely rare. Large variations in the incidence of this character are apparent when considering European countries. France and Spain are again widely affected while Germany, the Netherlands and Italy display rates of β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae of about 16%. M. catarrhalis must be considered generally resistant to non-protected aminopenicillins since over 90% of these organisms produce β-lactamases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-210
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Chemotherapy
Volume13
Issue numberSPEC. ISS. 1
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Haemophilus influenzae
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis
Epidemiology
Netherlands
Spain
Italy
France
Germany
Penicillin Resistance
Lactams
Incidence
Macrolides
Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Trimethoprim
Pandemics
Microbial Drug Resistance
Tetracycline
Respiratory Tract Infections
Penicillins
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Respiratory pathogens
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Debbia, E. A., Schito, G. C., Zoratti, A., Gualco, L., Tonoli, E., & Marchese, A. (2001). Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens. Journal of Chemotherapy, 13(SPEC. ISS. 1), 205-210.

Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens. / Debbia, Eugenio A.; Schito, G. C.; Zoratti, A.; Gualco, L.; Tonoli, E.; Marchese, A.

In: Journal of Chemotherapy, Vol. 13, No. SPEC. ISS. 1, 2001, p. 205-210.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Debbia, EA, Schito, GC, Zoratti, A, Gualco, L, Tonoli, E & Marchese, A 2001, 'Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens', Journal of Chemotherapy, vol. 13, no. SPEC. ISS. 1, pp. 205-210.
Debbia EA, Schito GC, Zoratti A, Gualco L, Tonoli E, Marchese A. Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens. Journal of Chemotherapy. 2001;13(SPEC. ISS. 1):205-210.
Debbia, Eugenio A. ; Schito, G. C. ; Zoratti, A. ; Gualco, L. ; Tonoli, E. ; Marchese, A. / Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens. In: Journal of Chemotherapy. 2001 ; Vol. 13, No. SPEC. ISS. 1. pp. 205-210.
@article{0e5478511c684fb9b3444078a544e4de,
title = "Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens",
abstract = "A vast literature attests to the fact that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis represent the prevailing bacterial pathogens of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. Their specific incidence as causative agents of the more common syndromes is known to vary even profoundly, depending on geographic area, and the same holds true for their rates of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Europe does not escape the threat posed by the present pandemic spread of penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae although, as expected, some countries like Spain and France are highly affected and others including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian region, are relatively spared. In several sites multiple resistance has been described in S. pneumoniae with the most affected drugs being penicillin, the macrolides, co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. In H. influenzae synthesis of β-lactamases is the main resistance trait expressed. Lack of susceptibility to β-lactams dictated by a different mechanism remains extremely rare. Large variations in the incidence of this character are apparent when considering European countries. France and Spain are again widely affected while Germany, the Netherlands and Italy display rates of β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae of about 16{\%}. M. catarrhalis must be considered generally resistant to non-protected aminopenicillins since over 90{\%} of these organisms produce β-lactamases.",
keywords = "Antibiotic resistance, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae",
author = "Debbia, {Eugenio A.} and Schito, {G. C.} and A. Zoratti and L. Gualco and E. Tonoli and A. Marchese",
year = "2001",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "205--210",
journal = "Journal of Chemotherapy",
issn = "1120-009X",
publisher = "Maney Publishing",
number = "SPEC. ISS. 1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Epidemiology of major respiratory pathogens

AU - Debbia, Eugenio A.

AU - Schito, G. C.

AU - Zoratti, A.

AU - Gualco, L.

AU - Tonoli, E.

AU - Marchese, A.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - A vast literature attests to the fact that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis represent the prevailing bacterial pathogens of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. Their specific incidence as causative agents of the more common syndromes is known to vary even profoundly, depending on geographic area, and the same holds true for their rates of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Europe does not escape the threat posed by the present pandemic spread of penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae although, as expected, some countries like Spain and France are highly affected and others including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian region, are relatively spared. In several sites multiple resistance has been described in S. pneumoniae with the most affected drugs being penicillin, the macrolides, co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. In H. influenzae synthesis of β-lactamases is the main resistance trait expressed. Lack of susceptibility to β-lactams dictated by a different mechanism remains extremely rare. Large variations in the incidence of this character are apparent when considering European countries. France and Spain are again widely affected while Germany, the Netherlands and Italy display rates of β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae of about 16%. M. catarrhalis must be considered generally resistant to non-protected aminopenicillins since over 90% of these organisms produce β-lactamases.

AB - A vast literature attests to the fact that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis represent the prevailing bacterial pathogens of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. Their specific incidence as causative agents of the more common syndromes is known to vary even profoundly, depending on geographic area, and the same holds true for their rates of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Europe does not escape the threat posed by the present pandemic spread of penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae although, as expected, some countries like Spain and France are highly affected and others including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian region, are relatively spared. In several sites multiple resistance has been described in S. pneumoniae with the most affected drugs being penicillin, the macrolides, co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. In H. influenzae synthesis of β-lactamases is the main resistance trait expressed. Lack of susceptibility to β-lactams dictated by a different mechanism remains extremely rare. Large variations in the incidence of this character are apparent when considering European countries. France and Spain are again widely affected while Germany, the Netherlands and Italy display rates of β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae of about 16%. M. catarrhalis must be considered generally resistant to non-protected aminopenicillins since over 90% of these organisms produce β-lactamases.

KW - Antibiotic resistance

KW - Haemophilus influenzae

KW - Moraxella catarrhalis

KW - Respiratory pathogens

KW - Streptococcus pneumoniae

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035721669&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035721669&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 11936367

AN - SCOPUS:0035721669

VL - 13

SP - 205

EP - 210

JO - Journal of Chemotherapy

JF - Journal of Chemotherapy

SN - 1120-009X

IS - SPEC. ISS. 1

ER -