Background: The concomitant presence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and medullary TC (MTC) is rare. In this multicentric study, we documented the epidemiological characteristics, disease conditions and clinical outcome of patients with simultaneous MTC/PTC. Methods: We collected data of patients with concomitant MTC/PTC at 14 Italian referral centers. Results: In total, 183 patients were enrolled. Diagnosis was mostly based on cytological examination (n = 58, 32%). At diagnosis, in the majority of cases, both PTC (n = 142, 78%) and MTC (n = 100, 54%) were at stage I. However, more cases of stage II-IV were reported with MTC (stage IV: n = 27, 15%) compared with PTC (n = 9, 5%). Information on survival was available for 165 patients: 109 patients (66%) were disease-free for both PTC and MTC at the last follow-up. Six patients died from MTC. Median time to progression was 123 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 89.3-156.7 months). Overall, 45% of patients were disease-free after >10 years from diagnosis (125 months); this figure was 72.5% for PTC and 51.1% for MTC. Conclusions: When MTC and PTC are concurrent, the priority should be given to the management of MTC since this entity appears associated with the most severe impact on prognosis.