Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life

Roberto Berni Canani, Margherita Di Costanzo, Ludovica Leone, Giorgio Bedogni, Paolo Brambilla, Stefano Cianfarani, Valerio Nobili, Angelo Pietrobelli, Carlo Agostoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-205
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition Research Reviews
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011


  • Adult metabolic diseases
  • Epigenome
  • Maternal nutrition
  • Microbiota

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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