Cancer is a genetic and epigenetic disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs, have been shown to be deregulated in many diseases including cancer. An intertwined connection between epigenetics and miRNAs has been supported by the recent identification of a specific subgroup of miRNAs called "epi-miRNAs" that can directly and indirectly modulate the activity of the epigenetic machinery. The complexity of this connection is enhanced by the epigenetic regulation of miRNA expression that generates a fine regulatory feedback loop. This review focuses on how epigenetics affects the miRNome and how the recently identified epi-miRNAs regulate the epigenome in human cancers, ultimately contributing to human carcinogenesis.
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