Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer: An overview

M. Montanari, S. Rossetti, C. Cavaliere, C. D'Aniello, M.G. Malzone, D. Vanacore, R. Di Franco, E. La Mantia, G. Iovane, R. Piscitelli, R. Muscariello, M. Berretta, S. Perdonà, P. Muto, G. Botti, A.A.M. Bianchi, B.M. Veneziani, G. Facchini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Prostate cancer is a main urological disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy are potentially curative for localized prostate cancer, while androgen deprivation therapy is the initial systemic therapy for metastatic prostate disease. However, despite temporary response, most patients relapse and evolve into castration resistant cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex gradual process that occurs during embryonic development and/or tumor progression. During this process, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire mesenchymal features. Increasing evidences indicate that EMT promotes prostate cancer metastatic progression and it is closely correlated with increased stemness and drug resistance. In this review, we discuss the main molecular events that directly or indirectly govern the EMT program in prostate cancer, in order to better define the role and the mechanisms underlying this process in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. © Montanari et al.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35376-35389
Number of pages14
JournalOncotarget
Volume8
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Androgen receptor
  • EGF/EGFR
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
  • Prostate cancer
  • TGF-β signaling
  • androgen
  • androgen receptor
  • beta catenin
  • estrogen receptor alpha
  • estrogen receptor beta
  • glycogen synthase kinase 3beta
  • heat shock protein 27
  • Hermes antigen
  • hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha
  • immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein
  • microRNA 200a
  • microRNA 200b
  • mitogen activated protein kinase p38
  • nerve cell adhesion molecule
  • phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase
  • phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate 3 phosphatase
  • protein kinase C
  • Raf protein
  • Ras protein
  • recombinant transforming growth factor beta1
  • recombinant transforming growth factor beta2
  • Smad protein
  • STAT3 protein
  • transcription factor Snail
  • transcription factor ZEB1
  • transforming growth factor beta
  • Twist related protein 1
  • unindexed drug
  • uvomorulin
  • vasculotropin
  • cancer growth
  • cancer resistance
  • down regulation
  • epithelial mesenchymal transition
  • hormone action
  • hormone determination
  • human
  • molecular interaction
  • nonhuman
  • prostate cancer
  • protein expression
  • protein function
  • protein phosphorylation
  • protein targeting
  • Review
  • signal transduction
  • tumor microenvironment

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