We report on the clinical and histological features of five cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, with an emphasis on its involvement of the uterine cervix. All five patients were of reproductive age (median age 38.4 years) and all, except one, presented with vaginal bleeding 3 to 18 years after the most recent pregnancy. One patient presented with amenorrhea. Elevation of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was seen in four cases. Pathologically, the tumor involved endocervix in three cases and involved uterine corpus in another two. All five tumors were invasive, nodular lesions consisting of epithelioid intermediate trophoblastic cells that were mononuclear with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, along with zones of hyaline material and necrotic debris. In three cases of cervical involvement, the neoplastic cells focally replaced endocervical surface and glandular epithelium, simulating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Immunohistochemically, all five tumors displayed focal positivity for human placental lactogen and hCG. Positive nuclear staining of p63 was seen in all five cases. All patients received total hysterectomy and various regimes of adjuvant chemotherapy. Three patients survived the tumor with no recurrences or metastases with follow-up periods of 3, 7 and 16 years. One patient is currently alive with lung metastasis 1 month after the surgery. One patient died of tumor metastasis 8 months after the diagnosis. In summary, with its unusual ability to simulate an invasive squamous cell carcinoma and other epithelioid neoplasms, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor frequently poses a diagnostic challenge, especially when involving the uterine cervix. High index of suspicion and an awareness of elevation of serum chorionic gonadotropin are crucial in reaching a correct diagnosis.
- Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine