Studying rebound mechanisms in MS patients after interruption of natalizumab may advance our understanding of MS pathogenesis. To verify the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and anti-EBV immunity in post-natalizumab rebound, we analyzed postmortem brain tissue of a case of fatal MS relapse. Using immunohistochemistry, EBV latent, early and late lytic proteins and CD8+ T cells sticking to EBV lytically-infected cells were detected in multiple inflammatory white matter lesions. Using the pentamer technology on brain sections, EBV-specific CD8+ T cells were observed perivascularly. Cell-free EBV DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings confirm and extend the results obtained in another case of post-natalizumab fatal MS relapse, suggesting that this condition represents an EBV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
- Multiple sclerosis
- Virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Clinical Neurology