To investigate the association between eradication of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and symptom regression in chronic prostatitis, 55 symptomatic patients were subjected to segmented tests to localise CT in first voided urine (VB1), prostatic secretions (EPS), post-massage voided (VB3) or semen specimens. Patients were divided in three treatment groups: the 'urethral involvement' group ('U': VB1 positive, EPS/VB3/Semen negative) was treated with 500 mg day-1 azithromycin for 3 days. The 'prostatitis' group ('P': VB1 negative, EPS/VB3/semen positive) with 4-week levofloxacin-azithromycin combination. A third group, 'U + P' (VB1, EPS/VB3/semen positive) received both treatments in sequence. In P patients, eradication of CT was paralleled by marked, sustained symptom improvement and by significant decrease of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Compared with U patients, undergoing rapid regression of symptoms related to painful micturition after short-term azithromycin, U + P patients showed symptom and pathogen persistence in VB3/EPS/semen and required additional treatment with 4-week levofloxacin-azithromycin to achieve pathogen eradication, symptom regression, and decrease of PSA. Our results support a causative role of CT in chronic bacterial prostatitis. In the presence of a positive urethral localisation of the pathogen, thorough microbiological investigation together with focused symptom analysis may reveal an underlying chlamydial prostatitis and direct effective therapy with appropriate antibacterial agents.
- Chlamydia trachomatis
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
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