Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: A potential new biomarker in chronic kidney diseases which correlates with plasma homocysteine

Mariarita Dessì, Annalisa Noce, Kutayba F. Dawood, Francesco Galli, Massimo Taccone-Gallucci, Raffaele Fabrini, Alessio Bocedi, Renato Massoud, Giorgio Fucci, Anna Pastore, Simone Manca Di Villahermosa, Viviana Zingaretti, Giorgio Federici, Giorgio Ricci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (e-GST) is a member of a superfamily of inducible enzymes involved in cell detoxification that shows an increased expression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We propose a new automated analysis procedure for e-GST activity that has been validated in 72 CKD patients and 62 maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHD). Regression analysis was carried out to assess association between e-GST activity data, main clinical variables, and plasma homocysteine (Hcy), a modified sulfur amino acid known as potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is increased above normal levels in more than 90% of the uremic patients. An increased e-GST activity was confirmed in MHD patients (N = 62; 10.2 ± 0.4 U/gHb) compared with healthy subjects (N = 80; 5.8 ± 0.4 U/gHb), and as an original finding, a significant increase of e-GST activity was observed in pre-dialysis CKD patients with a positive correlation with disease severity weighted according to the four stages of "Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative" classification (7.4 ± 0.5, 8 ± 1, 9.5 ± 0.6, 12 ± 1 U/gHb, respectively). No correlation was found between e-GST activity and hemoglobin, transferrin, blood iron and the markers of systemic inflammation and renal function such as alpha-1 acid glycoprotein and high-sensitive C-Reactive Protein, beta-2 microglobulin and the index of malnutrition-inflammation PINI, while a significant correlation was observed for the first time between plasma Hcy and e-GST activity (r 2 = 0.64, P <0.0001) in MHD patients. Hcy, however, was not identified as an inhibitor of e-GST enzyme. The results in this study suggest the potential for automated e-GST analysis as a valuable tool to further explore phase II-related uremic toxicity in CKD and MHD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-354
Number of pages8
JournalAmino Acids
Volume43
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Erythrocyte glutathione transferase
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia
  • Maintenance hemodialysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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  • Cite this

    Dessì, M., Noce, A., Dawood, K. F., Galli, F., Taccone-Gallucci, M., Fabrini, R., Bocedi, A., Massoud, R., Fucci, G., Pastore, A., Manca Di Villahermosa, S., Zingaretti, V., Federici, G., & Ricci, G. (2012). Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: A potential new biomarker in chronic kidney diseases which correlates with plasma homocysteine. Amino Acids, 43(1), 347-354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-011-1085-x