Establishing reference values for central blood pressure and its amplification in a general healthy population and according to cardiovascular risk factors

Annie Herbert, John Kennedy Cruickshank, Stéphane Laurent, Pierre Boutouyrie, Kazuyuki Shimada, Kazuomi Kario, Hiroshi Miyashita, Kazuo Eguchi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Yutaka Imai, Sadayoshi Ito, Junichiro Hashimoto, Kiyoshi Uchiba, Hiromichi Suzuki, Tsuneo Takenaka, Kenji Takazawa, Mineko Kino, Akira Yamashina, Hirofumi TomiyamaYasuaki Dohi, Hiroyuki Takase, Xavier Jouven, Jean Phillipe Empana, Bruno Pannier, Frédérique Thomas, Eva Prescott, Julie Janner, Carmel McEniery, John Cockcroft, Ian Wilkinson, Mary J. Roman, Richard B. Devereux, Valerie Teal, Raymond Townsend, Sebastian Vermeersch, Ernst R. Rietzschel, Luc Van Bortel, Marc L. De Buyzere, Patrick Segers, Thierry C. Gillebert, Ji Guang Wang, Yan Li, Jason Lazar, Louis Salciccioli, Pedro Cunha, Pedro Oliveira, Jorge Cotter, Isabel Vila, Nuno Sousa, Julio Chirinos, Josefina Medina-Lezama, Thomas Weber, Martin Rammer, Michael F. O'Rourke, Eber Bernd, Elisabeth Lassnig, Michael Porodko, Marcus Ammer, Siegfried Wassertheurer, Audrey Adji, Stefan Rosenkranz, Christian Punzengruber, Erich Kvas, Carole Dufouil, Christophe Tzourio, Giel Nijpels, Jacqueline M. Dekker, Coen D A Stehouwer, Isabel Ferreira, Jos W. Twisk, Yvo M. Smulders, Roel J. Van De Laar, Carla J. Van Kallen, Marleen M. Van Greevenbroek, Casper G. Schalkwijk, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Constantinos Aznaouridis, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Panos Xaplanteris, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Aletta E. Schutte, Carla M T Fourie, Johannes M. Van Rooyen, Azra Mahmud, John Feely, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Francesco Stea, Rosa Maria Bruno, Giulia Cartoni, Sabina Armenia, Stefano Taddei, Jitka Seidlerova, Jifi Vanek, Jan Filipovsky, Otto Mayer, Lars Lind, Inga Soveri, Bengt Fellström, Mihkel Zilmer, Maria Chiara Cavallini, Riccardo Pini, Mauro Di Bari, Niccolo Marchionni, Guilo Masotti, Giuseppe Schillaci, Giacomo Pucci, Francesca Battista, Laura Settimi, Michael A. Crilly, Vinod Kumar, Hazel J. Clark, Neil W. Scott, Alan G. Macdonald, David J. Williams, Graham S. Hillis, Amanda J. Lee, Alison De Vries, Gary R. Small, Alberto Zanchetti, Gregorz Bilo, Chiara Taurino, John D. McClure, Markus P. Schneider, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Łukasz Klima, Jan A. Staessen, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Josep Redon, Fernando Martinez, Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Olle Melander, Faiez Zannad, Patrick Rossignol, Cédric Collin, Laura Lonati, Anna F. Dominiczak, Michael O'Rourke, Ondrej Petrak, Branislav Štrauch, Jan Rosa, Jirí Widimský, Andrew Pipingas, Matthew P. Pase, Natalie A. Grima, Con Stough, Elizabeth Harris, Laura Sellick, Helen Macpherson, José Maria Pascualab, Enrique Rodilla, José Antonio Costa, Tabasomme Simon, Christian Delles, Jane A. Dymott, Ulf Neisius, David M. Carty, Pierre Fesler, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Massimo Salvettia, Anna Paini, Andras Tisler, Zofi, Klara Nemeth, Adrienn Marton, Taha El Haj Othmane, Orsolya Cseprekal, Peter Studinger, Nik Nor Izah Nik Ibrahim, Aida Hanum Ghulam Rasool, Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rahim Wong, Athanasios D. Protogerou, Theodore G. Papaioannou, Petros P. Sfikakis, Yangweng Fu, Jihong Hu, Liancheng Zhao, Nicole Li, Xiongjing Jiang, Ercan Ok, Meltem Sezis Demirci, Ozkan Gungor, I. A. Orlova, Z. N. Blankova, E. M. Seredenina, F. T. Ageev, I. A. Orlova, I. V. Barinova, E. M. Seredenina, F. T. Ageev, J. Bellien, M. Iacob, C. Thuillez, Joannides, Andrejs Erglis, Iveta Mintale, Gustavs Latkovskis, Marina Berzina, Milana Zabunova, Agnese Krallisa, Harold Smulyan, Michel Safar, Andriy Zhadan, Vira Tselukyo, Tiko Bregvadze, Ali Aydin, Yskert Von Kodolitsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims: Estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and amplification (Brachial SBP-cSBP) are non-invasive measures potentially prognostic of cardiovascular (CV) disease. No worldwide, multiple-device reference values are available. We aimed to establish reference values for a worldwide general population standardizing between the different available methods of measurement. How these values were significantly altered by cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) was then investigated. Methods and results: Existing data from population surveys and clinical trials were combined, whether published or not. Reference values of cSBP and amplification were calculatedas percentiles for 'Normal' (no CVRFs) and 'Reference' (any CVRFs) populations. We included 45 436 subjects out of 82 930 that were gathered from 77 studies of 53 centres. Included subjects were apparently healthy, not treated for hypertension or dyslipidaemia, and free from overt CV disease and diabetes. Values of cSBP and amplification were stratified by brachial blood pressure categories and age decade in turn, both being stratifiedbysex. Amplification decreased with age and more so in males than in females. Sex was the most powerful factor associated with amplification with 6.6 mmHg (5.8-7.4) higher amplification in males than in females. Amplification was marginally but significantly influenced by CVRFs, with smoking and dyslipidaemia decreasing amplification, but increased with increasing levels of blood glucose. Conclusion: Typical values of cSBP and amplification in a healthy population and a population free of traditional CVRFs are now available according to age, sex, and brachial BP, providing values included from different devices with a wide geographical representation. Amplification is significantly influenced by CVRFs, but differently in men and women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3122-3133
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Heart Journal
Volume35
Issue number44
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 21 2014

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aorta
  • Arteries
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Blood pressure
  • Central pressure
  • Humans
  • Pulse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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