Objective: Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are at risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cystatin C (Cys-C) is considered a more reliable tool to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than creatinine. The study aimed to assess circulating Cys-C and its relationships with biochemical PHPT and cardiometabolic parameters. Design and methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed in academic endocrine units on PHPT patients (n=190) and non-hypertensive, non-diabetic, age- And sex-matched healthy controls (n=135) with no established CKD. The main outcomes were creatinine by alkaline picrate method, Cys-C by immunonephelometry and calculation of estimated GFR based on creatinine and Cys-C (eGFRcr-cys) using the CKD-EPI equation. Results: In PHPT patients, circulating Cys-C ranged 0.45-3.13 mg/l and correlated with creatinine, age and BMI. Mean Cys-C level was higher in PHPT patients than in controls (0.93±0.02 vs 0.78±0.14 mg/l; P=0.03). Cys-C levels in PHPT patients were predicted by age, BMI, ionized calcium, hypertension and HDL-cholesterol, the most significant determinant being ionized calcium. Cys-C positively correlated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence. Overall, 18.4% of PHPT patients with eGFRcr >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n=169) had Cys-C levels higher than the 95th percentile in controls (1.03 mg/l), consistent with a preclinical CKD, which was associated with hypertension and insulin resistance. Considering eGFRcr-cys, CKD (stages G3a, G3b, 4) was diagnosed in 13.7% of PHPT patients. Estimated GFRcr-cys, but not eGFR based on creatinine, was predicted by insulin resistance and hypertension and positively correlated with CVD. Conclusions: Elevated Cys-C levels were associated with ionized calcium, cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD, and identified preclinical CKD in PHPT patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism