The anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is a common cause of morbidity in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. In clinical practice ACD is second only to anemia due to iron deficiency, and it is usually associated with chronic infectious, inflammatory or neoplastic disorders. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial. Among the most important mechanisms a decreased red cell life span, an abnormal iron metabolism with increased storage in the macrophages of bone marrow and a decreased erythropoietic activity have been reported. More recently an inappropriate response of renal erythropoietin production to the degree of anemia has been reported as another fundamental mechanism. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α produced by activated macrophages, are the main mediators of all the above-mentioned mechanisms implicated in ACD. An improved understanding of the role played by cytokines in the pathogenesis of ACD may lead to the development of more specific treatment of this common pathological condition.
|Journal||Annali Italiani di Medicina Interna, Supplement|
|Publication status||Published - 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology