Insomnia symptoms might affect about 60% of the Italian population. Insomnia is a “24 hours syndrome” and a risk factor for medical and mental disorders. It should always be assessed and treated in the clinical practice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia is the first line treatment but its availability in Italy is scarce. Pharmacological options in Italy are: melatonin 2 mg prolonged release that should be the first choice in subjects ≥55 years old and used until 13 weeks; and for a short term use (≤4 weeks) Z-drugs or short-acting benzodiazepines (in subjects <65 years old) or a sedating antidepressant.