Evaluation of coronary features of HIV patients presenting with ACS: The CUORE, a multicenter study

Mattia Peyracchia, Giulia De Lio, Chiara Montrucchio, Pierluigi Omedè, Gabriella d'Ettore, Andrea Calcagno, Vincenzo Vullo, Enrico Cerrato, Mauro Pennacchi, Gennaro Sardella, Pravin Manga, Walter GrossoMarra, Francesco Vullo, Francesco Fedele, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Claudio Moretti, Ahmed Vachiat, Stefano Bonora, Mauro Rinaldi, Massimo ManconeFabrizio D'Ascenzo

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Abstract

Background and aims: The risk of recurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is well known, but there is limited evidence about potential differences in coronary plaques compared to non-HIV patients. Methods: In this multicenter case-control study, HIV patients presenting with ACS, with intravascular-ultrasound (IVUS) data, enrolled between February 2015 and June 2017, and undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were retrospectively compared to non-HIV patients presenting with ACS, before and after propensity score with matching, randomly selected from included centers. Primary end-point was the prevalence of multivessel disease. Secondary end-points were the prevalence of abnormal features at IVUS, the incidence of major-acute-cardiovascular-events (MACE), a composite end point of cardiovascular death, MI, target lesion revascularization (TLR), stent thrombosis (ST), non-cardiac death and target vessel revascularization (TVR). For each end-point, a subgroup analysis was conducted in HIV patients with CD4 cell count <200/mm3. Results: Before propensity score, 66 HIV patients and 120 non-HIV patients were selected, resulting in 20 and 40 after propensity score. Patients with multivessel disease were 11 and 17, respectively (p = 0.56). IVUS showed a lower plaque burden (71% vs. 75%, p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of hyperechoic non-calcified plaques (100% vs. 35%, p < 0.05) in HIV patients; a higher prevalence of hypoechoic plaques (7% vs. 0%, p < 0.05), a higher incidence of MACE (17.4% vs. 9.1% vs. l’8.0%, p < 0.05), MI recurrence (17.2% vs. 0.0% vs. 2.3%, p < 0.05), and ST (6.7% vs. 0.3% vs. 03%, p < 0.05) in HIV patients with CD4 < 200/mm3. Conclusions: Our study may provide a part of the pathophysiological basis of the differences in coronary arteries between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, suggesting that the former present with peculiar morphological features at IVUS, even after adjustment for clinical variables. Furthermore, we confirmed that an advanced HIV infection is associated with a high risk of non-calcific plaques and with a worse prognosis, including cardiovascular events and ACS recurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-226
Number of pages9
JournalAtherosclerosis
Volume274
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Peyracchia, M., De Lio, G., Montrucchio, C., Omedè, P., d'Ettore, G., Calcagno, A., Vullo, V., Cerrato, E., Pennacchi, M., Sardella, G., Manga, P., GrossoMarra, W., Vullo, F., Fedele, F., Biondi-Zoccai, G., Moretti, C., Vachiat, A., Bonora, S., Rinaldi, M., ... D'Ascenzo, F. (2018). Evaluation of coronary features of HIV patients presenting with ACS: The CUORE, a multicenter study. Atherosclerosis, 274, 218-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.05.001