Evaluation of pain and stress levels of animals used

Lucia Martini, Rodolfo Nello Lorenzini, Stefano Cinotti, Milena Fini, Gianluca Giavaresi, Roberto Giardino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This paper represents a contribution to researchers employing 'in vivo' models in experimental surgery in order to obtain more reliable results in accordance with current legislation and Russel's 'three R' statement: refinement, reduction, and replacement. After general consideration about the definition of pain and stress concerning laboratory animals, the authors suggest making an evaluation of the experimental protocol before approval by the local committee to allow assessment in terms of the costs/benefits of experimental research employing live animals. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-119
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2000



  • Experimental surgery
  • Pain
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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