We assessed the effect of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular controls via spontaneous variability analyses of heart period, approximated as the temporal distance between two consecutive R-wave peaks on the electrocardiogram (RR), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP) and mean cerebral blood flow (MCBF). Powers in specific frequency bands, complexity, presence of nonlinear dynamics and markers of cardiac baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation were calculated. Variability series were acquired before (PRE) and after (POST) SAVR in 11 patients (age: 76±5 yrs, 7 males) at supine resting and during active standing. Parametric spectral analysis was performed based on the autoregressive model. Complexity was assessed via a local nonlinear prediction approach exploiting the k-nearest-neighbor strategy. The presence of nonlinear dynamics was checked by comparing the complexity marker computed over the original series with the distribution of the same index assessed over a set of surrogates preserving distribution and power spectral density of the original series. Cardiac baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation were estimated by assessing the transfer function from SAP to RR and from MAP to MCBF and squared coherence function via the bivariate autoregressive approach. We found that: i) orthostatic challenge had no effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control markers in PRE; ii) RR variance was significantly reduced in POST; iii) complexity of SAP, DAP and MAP variabilities increased in POST with a greater likelihood of observing nonlinear dynamics over SAP compared to PRE at supine resting; iv) the amplitude of MCBF variations and MCBF complexity in POST remained similar to PRE; v) cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased in POST, while cerebrovascular autoregulation was preserved. SAVR induces important changes of cardiac and vascular autonomic controls and baroreflex regulation in patients exhibiting poor reactivity of cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms, while cerebrovascular autoregulation seems to be less affected.