Evolutionary analysis of the contact system indicates that kininogen evolved adaptively in mammals and in human populations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Activation of the contact system leads to the cleavage of kininogen by plasma kallikrein resulting in kinin release and in the initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Proteolysis of kininogen also generates antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and can be induced by diverse pathogens. Thus, the contact system is regarded as a branch of innate immunity. We performed an evolutionary analysis of contact system genes by analyzing both inter- and intraspecies diversity. Results indicated that mammalian kininogen genes evolved adaptively. Positively selected sites are located in all protein domains with the exclusion of the bradykinin region and also involve AMP sequences (including the highly effective NAT26 peptide); positively selected sites also occur at alternative cleavage sites for neutrophil-released kinins. Population genetic analysis in humans indicated that a region of the kininogen gene (KNG1) has been a target of long-standing multiallelic balancing selection and that the coalescence time of the haplotype phylogeny dates back to the split between the humans and chimpanzees. No selection signature was detected in the Pan troglodytes KNG1 gene or in human genes encoding other components of the contact system. The selection targets in human KNG1 might be accounted for by variants with transcriptional regulatory activity. Results herein indicate a continuum in selective pressure acting on different timescales and targeting KNG1. This is in line with evidences suggesting a central role for kininogen in modulating of immune response and with its being a target of an extremely diverse array of pathogen species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1397-1408
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular Biology and Evolution
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Fingerprint

Kininogens
cystatins
Systems Analysis
human population
Mammals
mammal
mammals
gene
peptide
kinins
Kinins
Pan troglodytes
Population
Genes
antimicrobial peptides
genes
Peptides
cleavage
plasma kallikrein
pathogen

Keywords

  • balancing selection
  • contact system genes
  • innate immunity
  • KNG1
  • positive selection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

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title = "Evolutionary analysis of the contact system indicates that kininogen evolved adaptively in mammals and in human populations",
abstract = "Activation of the contact system leads to the cleavage of kininogen by plasma kallikrein resulting in kinin release and in the initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Proteolysis of kininogen also generates antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and can be induced by diverse pathogens. Thus, the contact system is regarded as a branch of innate immunity. We performed an evolutionary analysis of contact system genes by analyzing both inter- and intraspecies diversity. Results indicated that mammalian kininogen genes evolved adaptively. Positively selected sites are located in all protein domains with the exclusion of the bradykinin region and also involve AMP sequences (including the highly effective NAT26 peptide); positively selected sites also occur at alternative cleavage sites for neutrophil-released kinins. Population genetic analysis in humans indicated that a region of the kininogen gene (KNG1) has been a target of long-standing multiallelic balancing selection and that the coalescence time of the haplotype phylogeny dates back to the split between the humans and chimpanzees. No selection signature was detected in the Pan troglodytes KNG1 gene or in human genes encoding other components of the contact system. The selection targets in human KNG1 might be accounted for by variants with transcriptional regulatory activity. Results herein indicate a continuum in selective pressure acting on different timescales and targeting KNG1. This is in line with evidences suggesting a central role for kininogen in modulating of immune response and with its being a target of an extremely diverse array of pathogen species.",
keywords = "balancing selection, contact system genes, innate immunity, KNG1, positive selection",
author = "Rachele Cagliani and Diego Forni and Stefania Riva and Uberto Pozzoli and Marta Colleoni and Nereo Bresolin and Mario Clerici and Manuela Sironi",
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AU - Cagliani, Rachele

AU - Forni, Diego

AU - Riva, Stefania

AU - Pozzoli, Uberto

AU - Colleoni, Marta

AU - Bresolin, Nereo

AU - Clerici, Mario

AU - Sironi, Manuela

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N2 - Activation of the contact system leads to the cleavage of kininogen by plasma kallikrein resulting in kinin release and in the initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Proteolysis of kininogen also generates antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and can be induced by diverse pathogens. Thus, the contact system is regarded as a branch of innate immunity. We performed an evolutionary analysis of contact system genes by analyzing both inter- and intraspecies diversity. Results indicated that mammalian kininogen genes evolved adaptively. Positively selected sites are located in all protein domains with the exclusion of the bradykinin region and also involve AMP sequences (including the highly effective NAT26 peptide); positively selected sites also occur at alternative cleavage sites for neutrophil-released kinins. Population genetic analysis in humans indicated that a region of the kininogen gene (KNG1) has been a target of long-standing multiallelic balancing selection and that the coalescence time of the haplotype phylogeny dates back to the split between the humans and chimpanzees. No selection signature was detected in the Pan troglodytes KNG1 gene or in human genes encoding other components of the contact system. The selection targets in human KNG1 might be accounted for by variants with transcriptional regulatory activity. Results herein indicate a continuum in selective pressure acting on different timescales and targeting KNG1. This is in line with evidences suggesting a central role for kininogen in modulating of immune response and with its being a target of an extremely diverse array of pathogen species.

AB - Activation of the contact system leads to the cleavage of kininogen by plasma kallikrein resulting in kinin release and in the initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Proteolysis of kininogen also generates antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and can be induced by diverse pathogens. Thus, the contact system is regarded as a branch of innate immunity. We performed an evolutionary analysis of contact system genes by analyzing both inter- and intraspecies diversity. Results indicated that mammalian kininogen genes evolved adaptively. Positively selected sites are located in all protein domains with the exclusion of the bradykinin region and also involve AMP sequences (including the highly effective NAT26 peptide); positively selected sites also occur at alternative cleavage sites for neutrophil-released kinins. Population genetic analysis in humans indicated that a region of the kininogen gene (KNG1) has been a target of long-standing multiallelic balancing selection and that the coalescence time of the haplotype phylogeny dates back to the split between the humans and chimpanzees. No selection signature was detected in the Pan troglodytes KNG1 gene or in human genes encoding other components of the contact system. The selection targets in human KNG1 might be accounted for by variants with transcriptional regulatory activity. Results herein indicate a continuum in selective pressure acting on different timescales and targeting KNG1. This is in line with evidences suggesting a central role for kininogen in modulating of immune response and with its being a target of an extremely diverse array of pathogen species.

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