Ex vivo programming of antigen-presenting B lymphocytes: Considerations on DNA uptake and cell activation

Matthew Wheeler, Xotchil Cortez-Gonzalez, Raffaele Frazzi, Maurizio Zanetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Plasmids used in DNA vaccination not only serve as a source of antigen, but also have an important adjuvant effect. This review focuses on recent advancements made in understanding how cells internalize DNA, and how internalized DNA activates immune response pathways. We also comment on the role of B cells in both of these processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-97
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Reviews of Immunology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2006



  • Activation pathways
  • Antigen presenting cell
  • B-cell
  • DNA
  • Transgenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

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