Experimental and theoretical investigation of the apomorphine Raman spectrum

A. Lucotti, M. Casella, M. Tommasini, F. Gramatica, E. Di Fabrizio, G. Zerbi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Apomorphine (aporphine-10,11-diol, CA Registry Number 58004) is a non-narcotic derivative of morphine discovered in 1869 by Mattheisen[1] and it is a well-known potent short-acting dopamine agonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, typically used in the treatment of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). To identify the unknown vibrational spectrum of this compound, apomorphine bare salt and its commercial drug formulation (Apofin) were examined by means of Raman spectroscopy. In the Raman spectrum of apomorphine (both bare salt and commercial drug), two strong characteristic signals werefound,whichwereassignedwiththehelpoffirst-principlescalculations:thebandat1589cm-1 (assignedtothestretching mode of the B aromatic ring coupled with C-H in-plane bending) and the band at 1302 cm-1 (assigned to O-H in-plane bending and CH2 twisting and wagging vibrations).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2074-2079
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Raman Spectroscopy
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009


  • Apomorphine
  • Density functional theory calculations
  • Drug molecular characterization
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Raman spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Spectroscopy
  • Materials Science(all)


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