Experimental Model of Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine

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A hemorrhagic shock was created in 12 hybrid swine under general anaesthesia by bleeding of 30% of total blood volume and the duration of the shock was 90 minutes. Circulatory parameters progressively decreased (p <0.005) except for heart rate that progressively increased. End-tidal CO2 showed a modest increase of about 7% during the shock between 30 and 60 min after bleeding. Cardiac output and index significantly (p <0.0005) decreased in the first 30 min. Systemic vascular resistance trend showed an early fall at the beginning of bleeding, while pulmonary vascular resistance increased (p <0.01) following an almost linear pattern for 60 min of shock. Oxygen delivery index progressively decreased, while oxygen consumption index remained unchanged. To sum up, this experimental model can be used to evaluate the most reliable monitoring instruments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-116
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Animal Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2001


  • Experimental surgery
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Swine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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