Exploratory evaluation of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety of rivaroxaban in children and adolescents: An EINSTEIN-Jr phase i study

Dagmar Kubitza, Stefan Willmann, Michael Becka, Kirstin Thelen, Guy Young, Leonardo R. Brandão, Paul Monagle, Christoph Male, Anthony Chan, Gili Kennet, Ida Martinelli, Paola Saracco, Anthonie W.A. Lensing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The EINSTEIN-Jr program will evaluate rivaroxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children, targeting exposures similar to the 20 mg once-daily dose for adults. Methods: This was a multinational, single-dose, open-label, phase I study to describe the pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of a single bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban dose in children aged 0.5-18 years. Children who had completed treatment for a venous thromboembolic event were enrolled into four age groups (0.5-2 years, 2-6 years, 6-12 years and 12-18 years) receiving rivaroxaban doses equivalent to 10 mg or 20 mg (either as a tablet or oral suspension). Blood samples for PK and PD analyses were collected within specified time windows. Results: Fifty-nine children were evaluated. In all age groups, PD parameters (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and anti-Factor Xa activity) showed a linear relationship versus rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and were in line with previously acquired adult data, as well as in vitro spiking experiments. The rivaroxaban pediatric physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, used to predict the doses for the individual body weight groups, was confirmed. No episodes of bleeding were reported, and treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in four children and all resolved during the study. Conclusions: Bodyweight-adjusted, single-dose rivaroxaban had predictable PK/PD profiles in children across all age groups from 0.5 to 18 years. The PD assessments based on prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time demonstrated that the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban was not affected by developmental hemostasis in children. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01145859.

Original languageEnglish
Article number31
JournalThrombosis Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 4 2018


  • Developmental hemostasis
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Rivaroxaban
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


Dive into the research topics of 'Exploratory evaluation of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety of rivaroxaban in children and adolescents: An EINSTEIN-Jr phase i study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this