Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy

L. L. Needham, P. M. Gerthoux, D. G. Patterson, P. Brambilla, S. J. Smith, E. J. Sampson, P. Mocarelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Accurate exposure assessment is an important step in both risk assessment and epidemiologic studies involving potential human exposure to environmental toxicants. Various methods have been used to assess human exposure. These methods include models based on one's temporal and spatial nearness to the source, environmental levels of toxicant, and biological measures. We believe that the latter measure is the 'gold standard.' In this article we present the serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in residents of the contaminated zones in Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and delineate these data by age and gender. Some of these serum levels are among the highest ever reported and thus this population serves as a benchmark for comparison of human exposure and potential adverse health effects. One such potential population is that population consuming potentially contaminated fish.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Research
Issue number2 II
Publication statusPublished - 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)


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