Expression and function of metabotropic glutamate receptors in liver

Marianna Storto, Maria Pia Vairetti, Francesc X. Sureda, Barbara Riozzi, Valeria Bruno, Ferdinando Nicoletti

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System (CNS) where its actions are mediated by different types of membrane receptors classified into "ionotropic" (iGluR) and "metabotropic" (mOluR) glutamate receptors (reviewed by Nakanishi, 1992). iGlu receptors (NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; AMPA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, and kainate receptors) form membrane ion channels permeable to mono- and divalent cations, and their activation is responsible for fast excitatory synaptic transmission; however, this class of receptors, particularly NMDA receptors, has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of neuronal damage in most of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders (Choi, 1992; Doble, 1999). A sustained activation of NMDA receptors induces excessive and prolonged increases in intracellular free Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ activates a series of intracellular enzymes, including phospholipase A2, xanthine oxidase, and constitutive nitric oxide synthase, which in turn trigger a cascade of events leading to a form of cell death, termed "excitotoxicity" (Choi, 1992). mGlu receptors are coupled to G proteins and regulate the activity of a variety of membrane enzymes and ion channels (reviewed by Pin and Duvoisin, 1995). mGlu receptors form a family of eight subtypes, which are subdivided into three groups on the basis of sequence similarities and transduction pathways. Group-I includes mGlul and mGlu5 receptors, which are coupled to polyphosphoinositide (PPI) hydrolysis and can also regulate the activity of different types of K+ channels. Group-II (mGlu2 and mGlu3) and group-Ill (mGlu4, -6, -7, -8) receptors are negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase activity in heterologous expression systems and, with the exception of mGlu6 receptors, share the ability to modulate different types of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels when expressed in their native environment. Both iGlu and mGlu receptors have an estabHshed role in the CNS, and, in particular, mGlu receptors are involved in various aspects of CNS physiology and pathology, including modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission, developmental plasticity, learning and memory processes, and neurodegeneration (Nakanishi, 1994; Conn and Pin, 1997; Bruno et al 2001).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGlutamate Receptors in Peripheral Tissue: Excitatory Transmission Outside the CNS
PublisherSpringer US
Pages211-217
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9780306486449, 0306479737, 9780306479731
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors
Ion Channels
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
Central Nervous System
Liver
Synaptic Transmission
Nervous System Physiological Phenomena
Isoxazoles
Kainic Acid Receptors
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates
Monovalent Cations
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid
Aptitude
Xanthine Oxidase
Phospholipases A2
Divalent Cations
Enzymes
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Adenylyl Cyclases
Nitric Oxide Synthase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Storto, M., Vairetti, M. P., Sureda, F. X., Riozzi, B., Bruno, V., & Nicoletti, F. (2005). Expression and function of metabotropic glutamate receptors in liver. In Glutamate Receptors in Peripheral Tissue: Excitatory Transmission Outside the CNS (pp. 211-217). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48644-X_13

Expression and function of metabotropic glutamate receptors in liver. / Storto, Marianna; Vairetti, Maria Pia; Sureda, Francesc X.; Riozzi, Barbara; Bruno, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando.

Glutamate Receptors in Peripheral Tissue: Excitatory Transmission Outside the CNS. Springer US, 2005. p. 211-217.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Storto, M, Vairetti, MP, Sureda, FX, Riozzi, B, Bruno, V & Nicoletti, F 2005, Expression and function of metabotropic glutamate receptors in liver. in Glutamate Receptors in Peripheral Tissue: Excitatory Transmission Outside the CNS. Springer US, pp. 211-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48644-X_13
Storto M, Vairetti MP, Sureda FX, Riozzi B, Bruno V, Nicoletti F. Expression and function of metabotropic glutamate receptors in liver. In Glutamate Receptors in Peripheral Tissue: Excitatory Transmission Outside the CNS. Springer US. 2005. p. 211-217 https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48644-X_13
Storto, Marianna ; Vairetti, Maria Pia ; Sureda, Francesc X. ; Riozzi, Barbara ; Bruno, Valeria ; Nicoletti, Ferdinando. / Expression and function of metabotropic glutamate receptors in liver. Glutamate Receptors in Peripheral Tissue: Excitatory Transmission Outside the CNS. Springer US, 2005. pp. 211-217
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