Phagocytic macrophages are known to support noncytopathic, chronic infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Regulation of viral replication in such cells with either chronic low-grade or latent HIV infection is probably influenced by both viral and cellular factors acting on the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). This study identifies naturally occurring biological response modifiers which are able to affect the HIV-LTR linked to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (LTR-CAT) gene in a stable transfection of the human promonocyte cell line, U937, in the absence of other viral proteins. In this model system, endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are able to independently stimulate expression of LTR-CAT. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor can enhance the effect of TNF-α or LPS, but other cytokines tested had minimal or no effect on LTR-CAT. In addition to effects on cellular susceptibility and immune function, the ability of naturally occurring factors to affect HIV-LTR in its integrated state may have particular relevance to progression of active disease from latent infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology