External anal sphincter responses after S3 spinal root surface electrical stimulation

Giuseppe Pelliccioni, Osvaldo Scarpino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: The aim of this study is to present the normative data of direct and reflex motor anal sphincter responses, simultaneously evoked by S3 surface electrical stimulation. By this method, it is possible to test the functional integrity of the nervous pathways activated during sacral neuromodulation (SNM). Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were studied. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded by concentric needle electrode from external anal sphincter (EAS). Electrical stimulation was applied by means of a bipolar surface electrode over the S3 right or left sacral foramina. Results: Direct (R1) and reflex responses (R2 and R3) were found at latencies of 6.98, 25.12, and 50.31 msec, respectively. The two first responses were recorded in all the cases; the last response is steadily recorded in 17 out of 20 subjects. Conclusions: Our data can serve as reference values for future study in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction. EAS responses following S3 percutaneous electrical stimulation can represent a useful aid in the selection of candidates to SNM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)788-791
Number of pages4
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • Electric stimulation
  • Motor-evoked potentials
  • Neurophysiology
  • Pelvic floor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Nephrology
  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'External anal sphincter responses after S3 spinal root surface electrical stimulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this