Measurements of inorganic elements in clinical laboratories produce results used for the diagnosis, the treatment and the monitoring of deficiencies or overloads. The main objective of External Quality Assessment Schemes is to verify, on a regular frequency, that clinical laboratory results correspond to the quality requirement for patient care. Therefore, External Quality Assessment Schemes represent an essential component of a laboratory's quality management system. However, External Quality Assessment Schemes within the same analytical field remain heterogeneous for different reasons such as samples, determination of assigned value, acceptable limits, content of the reports. The aim of this review was to describe and illustrate some major critical aspects of External Quality Assessment Schemes based on Occupational and Environmental Laboratory Medicine external quality assessment scheme experience.