Extra-abdominal venous thromboses at unusual sites

Ida Martinelli, Valerio De Stefano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Venous thrombosis typically involves the lower extremities. Rarely, it can occur in cerebral, splanchnic, or renal veins, with a frightening clinical impact. Other rare manifestations are upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis, that can complicate with pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, and retinal vein occlusion, significantly affecting the quality of life. This review is focused on venous thromboses at unusual extra-abdominal sites. Local infections or cancer are frequent in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis is mostly due to catheters or effort-related factors. Common risk factors are inherited thrombophilia and oral contraceptive use. Acute treatment is based on heparin; in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis, local or systemic fibrinolysis should be considered in case of clinical deterioration. Vitamin-K antagonists are recommended for 3-6 months; indefinite anticoagulation is suggested for recurrent thrombosis or unprovoked thrombosis and permanent risk factors. However, such recommendations mainly derive from observational studies; there are no data about long-term treatment of retinal vein occlusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-274
Number of pages10
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012


  • cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis
  • retinal vein thrombosis
  • upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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