Extracellular vesicles and epigenetic modifications are hallmarks of melanoma progression.

Francesco Mannavola, Stella D’oronzo, Mauro Cives, Luigia Stefania Stucci, Girolamo Ranieri, Franco Silvestris, Marco Tucci

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cutaneous melanoma shows a high metastatic potential based on its ability to overcome the immune system’s control. The mechanisms activated for these functions vary extremely and are also represented by the production of a number of extracellular vesicles including exosomes. Other vesicles showing a potential role in the melanoma progression include oncosomes and melanosomes and the majority of them mediate tumor processes including angiogenesis, immune regulation, and modifications of the micro-environment. Moreover, a number of epigenetic modifications have been described in melanoma and abundant production of altered microRNAs (mi-RNAs), non-coding RNAs, histones, and abnormal DNA methylation have been associated with different phases of melanoma progression. In addition, exosomes, miRNAs, and other molecular factors have been used as potential biomarkers reflecting disease evolution while others have been suggested to be potential druggable molecules for therapeutic application.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberE52
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Epigenetic modifications
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Melanoma
  • MiRNAs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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