Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as mediators of a range of pathological processes, including cancer. However, their role in bone metastases has been poorly explored. We investigated EV-mediated effects of osteotropic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) on bone resident cells and endothelial cells. Pretreatment of osteoblasts with conditioned medium (CM) of MDA-MB-231 (MDA) cells promoted pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-angiogenic effects by osteoblast EVs (OB-EVs), as well as an increase of RANKL-positive OB-EVs. Moreover, when treating osteoblasts with MDA-EVs, we observed a reduction of their number, metabolic activity, and alkaline phosphatase (Alp) activity. MDA-EVs also reduced transcription of Cyclin D1 and of the osteoblast-differentiating genes, while enhancing the expression of the pro-osteoclastogenic factors Rankl, Lcn2, Il1b, and Il6. Interestingly, a cytokine array on CM from osteoblasts treated with MDA-EVs showed an increase of the cytokines CCL3, CXCL2, Reg3G, and VEGF, while OPG and WISP1 were downregulated. MDA-EVs contained mRNAs of genes involved in bone metabolism, as well as cytokines, including PDGF-BB, CCL3, CCL27, VEGF, and Angiopoietin 2. In line with this profile, MDA-EVs increased osteoclastogenesis and in vivo angiogenesis. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of MDA-EVs in mice revealed their ability to reach the bone microenvironment and be integrated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In conclusion, we showed a role for osteoblast-derived EVs and tumor cell–derived EVs in the deregulation of bone and endothelial cell physiology, thus fueling the vicious cycle induced by bone tumors.
- CELL/TISSUE SIGNALING - ENDOCRINE PATHWAYS
- CELL/TISSUE SIGNALING - PARACRINE PATHWAYS
- CELLS OF BONE
- TUMOR-INDUCED BONE DISEASE
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine