BACKGROUND: Data on clinical applications of blood purification techniques in children are scarce. The aim of this review is to offer a clinical overview, as complete as possible, on blood purification in children with hyper-inflammatory syndromes (HS).
METHODS: A review of the literature using the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, on the most recent data about blood purification in children was conducted until June 2018. Except for three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Plasma-exchange (PE), no RCTs, but only observational studies or case reports were found regarding other blood purification techniques in children.
RESULTS: High Volume Hemofiltration (HVHF) in two non-randomized trials did not significantly reduce 28-day mortality in children. PE was not associated with reduced mortality in pediatric patients with septic shock, but the small number of patients enrolled is an important limitation. The use of polymixin B and other adsorbing columns in children with septic shock and HS is increasing, but results are still limited by the observational nature of the studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the low-level of available evidence, no conclusions can be drawn regarding the efficacy and safety of blood purification in children. Further research with more clinically robust data is needed to determine the impact of different extracorporeal blood purification techniques (EBPTs) in this pediatric population.