Extragonadal germ cell tumors: Not just a matter of location. A review about clinical, molecular and pathological features

Andrea Ronchi, Immacolata Cozzolino, Marco Montella, Iacopo Panarese, Federica Zito Marino, Sabrina Rossetti, Paolo Chieffi, Marina Accardo, Gaetano Facchini, Renato Franco

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) are uncommon neoplasms, which arise in anatomical locations other than gonads. The pathogenesis of these neoplasms is still poorly understood and it is a matter of debate if they really represent extragondal primary neoplasms or rather extragondal metastasis from occult gonadal neoplasms. The actual observations suggest that EGGCTs represent a unique entity, so their biology and behavior are substantially different from gonadal counterparts. The diagnosis of EGGCTs is often challenging, and differential diagnosis is particularly wide. Nevertheless, a correct diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the patient. We summarize the state of art about EGGCTs, with particular emphasis on diagnosis and prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCancer Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • choriocarcinoma
  • chromosome 12p
  • embryonal carcinoma
  • extragonadal germ cell tumors
  • SALL4
  • seminoma
  • SOX2
  • teratoma
  • yolk sac tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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  • Cite this

    Ronchi, A., Cozzolino, I., Montella, M., Panarese, I., Zito Marino, F., Rossetti, S., Chieffi, P., Accardo, M., Facchini, G., & Franco, R. (2019). Extragonadal germ cell tumors: Not just a matter of location. A review about clinical, molecular and pathological features. Cancer Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2195