Congenital Factor XI (FXI) deficiency shows a high variability in clinical phenotype. To date, many allele variants have been shown to cause this bleeding disorder. However, the genotype-phenotype relationship is difficult to establish. This report provides insights into this bleeding disorder. Sixteen unrelated Italian index cases with congenital FXI deficiency and their relatives were investigated. After the identification of the deficiency, we obtained DNA from each subject and analyzed the FXI gene using direct sequencing. We identified 5 and 11 individuals with severe and moderate deficiency of FXI activity, respectively. Most patients (8/16) carried mutations in the Apple 2 domain and 4 patients showed c.403G>T (p.Glu135*; type II mutation). Four novel compound heterozygosities were identified. Bleeding symptoms were present in two severely deficient subjects carrying the combinations c.901T>C (p.Phe301Leu)/c.1556G>A (p.Trp519*) and c.943G>A (p.Glu315)/c.1556G>A (p.Trp519*), respectively. Bleeding episodes were also observed in the presence of a moderate deficiency in two individuals heterozygous for c.449C>T (p.Thr150Met) and c.1253G>T (p.Gly418Val), respectively. One novel mutation, c.1682C>A (p.Ala561Asp), was identified as potentially deleterious in an asymptomatic individual. We confirm an unclear prediction of phenotype from mutational data. The FXI levels should be coupled with FXI analysis for a more comprehensive prediction of the bleeding phenotype in FXI deficiency.
- Journal Article