Factors associated to chronic migraine with medication overuse: A cross-sectional study

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Abstract

Background and aim Factors implicated in the evolution of episodic migraine into chronic migraine are largely elusive. Medication overuse is considered to be one of the main determinants, but other possible clinical and psychological factors can play a role. The aim of this study is to identify factors that are associated with chronic migraine with medication overuse. Method We enrolled consecutive migraine patients, subdividing them in two groups: Subjects with a long history of episodic migraine and subjects with chronic migraine and medication overuse. We then compared their clinical and psychological variables in a cross-sectional study. Results Three hundred and eighteen patients were enrolled, of which 156 were episodic migraine and 162 were chronic migraine and medication overuse patients. The mean age was 42.1 ± 10.3, 80.8% were female. The duration of migraine was 24.6 years in episodic migraine and 24.0 years in chronic migraine and medication overuse ( p = 0.57). After the multivariate analysis, the factors associated to chronic migraine and medication overuse were: Marital status (married vs. unmarried, OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.63-8.19, p = 0.002; separated/divorced/widowed vs. unmarried, OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.13-15.47, p = 0.031), physical activity (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91, p = 0.029), age at onset of migraine (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.98, p = 0.016), use of at least one migraine preventive medication (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.18-4.71, p = 0.014), history of depression (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.25-6.73, p = 0.012), insomnia associated with the use of hypnotics (OR 5.59, 95% CI 1.65-18.93, p = 0.006), traumatic head injuries (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.57-7.99, p = 0.002), snoring (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05-4.79, p = 0.036), previous and/or actual use of combined oral contraceptives (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.10-10.3, p = 0.031) and higher scores in the Childhood Trauma questionnaire (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.02, p = 0.012). Conclusion We considered several aspects that may be involved in the development of chronic migraine and medication overuse. A multivariate analysis identified 10 factors belonging to five different areas, to suggest that chronic migraine and medication overuse onset is likely influenced by a complex mixture of factors. This information is useful when planning strategies to prevent and manage chronic migraine and medication overuse.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333102418761047
JournalCephalalgia
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jan 1 2018

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Migraine Disorders
Cross-Sectional Studies
Prescription Drug Overuse
Multivariate Analysis
Psychology
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined
Widowhood
Snoring
Divorce
Marital Status
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Complex Mixtures
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Craniocerebral Trauma
Age of Onset

Cite this

@article{5f9f83351f0f4187b195d146ab795f6d,
title = "Factors associated to chronic migraine with medication overuse: A cross-sectional study",
abstract = "Background and aim Factors implicated in the evolution of episodic migraine into chronic migraine are largely elusive. Medication overuse is considered to be one of the main determinants, but other possible clinical and psychological factors can play a role. The aim of this study is to identify factors that are associated with chronic migraine with medication overuse. Method We enrolled consecutive migraine patients, subdividing them in two groups: Subjects with a long history of episodic migraine and subjects with chronic migraine and medication overuse. We then compared their clinical and psychological variables in a cross-sectional study. Results Three hundred and eighteen patients were enrolled, of which 156 were episodic migraine and 162 were chronic migraine and medication overuse patients. The mean age was 42.1 ± 10.3, 80.8{\%} were female. The duration of migraine was 24.6 years in episodic migraine and 24.0 years in chronic migraine and medication overuse ( p = 0.57). After the multivariate analysis, the factors associated to chronic migraine and medication overuse were: Marital status (married vs. unmarried, OR 3.65, 95{\%} CI 1.63-8.19, p = 0.002; separated/divorced/widowed vs. unmarried, OR 4.19, 95{\%} CI 1.13-15.47, p = 0.031), physical activity (OR 0.42, 95{\%} CI 0.19-0.91, p = 0.029), age at onset of migraine (OR 0.94, 95{\%} CI 0.89-0.98, p = 0.016), use of at least one migraine preventive medication (OR 2.36, 95{\%} CI 1.18-4.71, p = 0.014), history of depression (OR 2.91, 95{\%} CI 1.25-6.73, p = 0.012), insomnia associated with the use of hypnotics (OR 5.59, 95{\%} CI 1.65-18.93, p = 0.006), traumatic head injuries (OR 3.54, 95{\%} CI 1.57-7.99, p = 0.002), snoring (OR 2.24, 95{\%} CI 1.05-4.79, p = 0.036), previous and/or actual use of combined oral contraceptives (OR 3.38, 95{\%} CI 1.10-10.3, p = 0.031) and higher scores in the Childhood Trauma questionnaire (OR 1.48, 95{\%} CI 1.09-2.02, p = 0.012). Conclusion We considered several aspects that may be involved in the development of chronic migraine and medication overuse. A multivariate analysis identified 10 factors belonging to five different areas, to suggest that chronic migraine and medication overuse onset is likely influenced by a complex mixture of factors. This information is useful when planning strategies to prevent and manage chronic migraine and medication overuse.",
author = "Michele Viana and Sara Bottiroli and Grazia Sances and Natascia Ghiotto and Marta Allena and Elena Guaschino and Giuseppe Nappi and Cristina Tassorelli",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0333102418761047",
language = "English",
pages = "333102418761047",
journal = "Cephalalgia",
issn = "0333-1024",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factors associated to chronic migraine with medication overuse

T2 - A cross-sectional study

AU - Viana, Michele

AU - Bottiroli, Sara

AU - Sances, Grazia

AU - Ghiotto, Natascia

AU - Allena, Marta

AU - Guaschino, Elena

AU - Nappi, Giuseppe

AU - Tassorelli, Cristina

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background and aim Factors implicated in the evolution of episodic migraine into chronic migraine are largely elusive. Medication overuse is considered to be one of the main determinants, but other possible clinical and psychological factors can play a role. The aim of this study is to identify factors that are associated with chronic migraine with medication overuse. Method We enrolled consecutive migraine patients, subdividing them in two groups: Subjects with a long history of episodic migraine and subjects with chronic migraine and medication overuse. We then compared their clinical and psychological variables in a cross-sectional study. Results Three hundred and eighteen patients were enrolled, of which 156 were episodic migraine and 162 were chronic migraine and medication overuse patients. The mean age was 42.1 ± 10.3, 80.8% were female. The duration of migraine was 24.6 years in episodic migraine and 24.0 years in chronic migraine and medication overuse ( p = 0.57). After the multivariate analysis, the factors associated to chronic migraine and medication overuse were: Marital status (married vs. unmarried, OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.63-8.19, p = 0.002; separated/divorced/widowed vs. unmarried, OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.13-15.47, p = 0.031), physical activity (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91, p = 0.029), age at onset of migraine (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.98, p = 0.016), use of at least one migraine preventive medication (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.18-4.71, p = 0.014), history of depression (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.25-6.73, p = 0.012), insomnia associated with the use of hypnotics (OR 5.59, 95% CI 1.65-18.93, p = 0.006), traumatic head injuries (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.57-7.99, p = 0.002), snoring (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05-4.79, p = 0.036), previous and/or actual use of combined oral contraceptives (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.10-10.3, p = 0.031) and higher scores in the Childhood Trauma questionnaire (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.02, p = 0.012). Conclusion We considered several aspects that may be involved in the development of chronic migraine and medication overuse. A multivariate analysis identified 10 factors belonging to five different areas, to suggest that chronic migraine and medication overuse onset is likely influenced by a complex mixture of factors. This information is useful when planning strategies to prevent and manage chronic migraine and medication overuse.

AB - Background and aim Factors implicated in the evolution of episodic migraine into chronic migraine are largely elusive. Medication overuse is considered to be one of the main determinants, but other possible clinical and psychological factors can play a role. The aim of this study is to identify factors that are associated with chronic migraine with medication overuse. Method We enrolled consecutive migraine patients, subdividing them in two groups: Subjects with a long history of episodic migraine and subjects with chronic migraine and medication overuse. We then compared their clinical and psychological variables in a cross-sectional study. Results Three hundred and eighteen patients were enrolled, of which 156 were episodic migraine and 162 were chronic migraine and medication overuse patients. The mean age was 42.1 ± 10.3, 80.8% were female. The duration of migraine was 24.6 years in episodic migraine and 24.0 years in chronic migraine and medication overuse ( p = 0.57). After the multivariate analysis, the factors associated to chronic migraine and medication overuse were: Marital status (married vs. unmarried, OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.63-8.19, p = 0.002; separated/divorced/widowed vs. unmarried, OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.13-15.47, p = 0.031), physical activity (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91, p = 0.029), age at onset of migraine (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.98, p = 0.016), use of at least one migraine preventive medication (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.18-4.71, p = 0.014), history of depression (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.25-6.73, p = 0.012), insomnia associated with the use of hypnotics (OR 5.59, 95% CI 1.65-18.93, p = 0.006), traumatic head injuries (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.57-7.99, p = 0.002), snoring (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05-4.79, p = 0.036), previous and/or actual use of combined oral contraceptives (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.10-10.3, p = 0.031) and higher scores in the Childhood Trauma questionnaire (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.02, p = 0.012). Conclusion We considered several aspects that may be involved in the development of chronic migraine and medication overuse. A multivariate analysis identified 10 factors belonging to five different areas, to suggest that chronic migraine and medication overuse onset is likely influenced by a complex mixture of factors. This information is useful when planning strategies to prevent and manage chronic migraine and medication overuse.

U2 - 10.1177/0333102418761047

DO - 10.1177/0333102418761047

M3 - Article

C2 - 29635935

SP - 333102418761047

JO - Cephalalgia

JF - Cephalalgia

SN - 0333-1024

ER -