Purpose: Frailty has become a major issue in the prevention of functional decline and disability in aged populations. Using repeated measurements of frailty over 3 years, this work aimed to describe transitions between frailty states and associated factors. Methods: This study used the data from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial and included the 842 participants aged 70 and over who did not receive the multidomain intervention. Frailty was assessed using the phenotype proposed by Fried et al. at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Factors influencing the transitions across frailty states were examined using multistate modeling. Results: The study population included 548 women and 294 men, mean age 75.4 ± 4.5 years. At baseline, 430 (53%) participants were nonfrail, 349 (43%) prefrail, and 28 (4%) frail. A total of 2271 pairs of consecutive measurements of frailty status were available over the 3 years of follow-up, with no change in frailty status in 1548 of them (68%), a worsening of frailty status in 426 of them (19%), and an improvement in frailty status in the remaining 297 (13%). Polypharmacy (i.e., ≥6 drugs) and probable depression were associated with incident prefrailty. Female gender was systematically associated with a lower probability of recovering from prefrailty and frailty. Older age, overweight, comorbidity, and abnormal C-reactive protein also reduced the probability of recovery from frailty or prefrailty. Conclusions: This study sheds light on factors that should be further investigated in future research to help the prevention and management of frailty.
- Frail elderly
ASJC Scopus subject areas