Factors associated with mortality in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Results from the ACSRS study

S. K. Kakkos, A. N. Nicolaides, M. Griffin, M. Sabetai, S. Dhanjil, D. J. Thomas, T. Sonecha, A. M. Salmasi, G. Geroulakos, N. Georgiou, S. Francis, E. Ioannidou, C. J. Dore, R. Adovasio, B. Ziani, F. P. Alò, C. G. Cicilioni, G. Ambrosio, A. Andreev, G. M. AndreozziF. Verlato, G. Camporese, E. Arosio, E. Barkauskas, A. A B Barros D'Sa, P. Brannigan, V. Batchvarova, A. Dramov, P. Belardi, G. P. Novelli, G. Simoni, P. Bell, G. M. Biasi, P. Mingazzini, N. M. Bornstein, D. Bouchier-Hayes, P. Fitzgerald, M. A. Cairols, P. G. Cao, P. DeRango, G. P. Carboni, C. Geoffredo, M. Catalano, B. Chambers, M. Goetzmann, A. Dickinson, D. Clement, M. Bobelyn, S. Coccheri, E. Conti, E. Diamantopolous, E. A. Andreadis, P. B. Dimakakos, T. Kotsis, B. Eikelboom, L. Entz, [No Value] Ferrari-Bardile, T. Aloi, M. Salerno, J. Fernandez e Fernandez, L. Pedro, D. E. Fitzgerald, A. O'Shaunnersy, J. Fletcher, S. Forconi, R. Cappeli, M. Bicchi, S. Arigucci, V. Gallai, G. Cardaiolli, G. Geroulakos, S. Kakkos, L. F. Gomez-Isaza, G. Gorgoyannis, N. Liasis, M. Graf, P. Guarini, S. Hardy, P. Harris, S. Aston, G. Iosa, A. Katsamouris, A. Glannoukas, M. Krzanowski, G. Ladurner, J. Leal-Monedero, B. B. Lee, C. Liapis, P. Galanis, W. Liboni, E. Pavanelli, E. Mannarino, G. Vaudo, P. McCollum, R. Levison, G. Micieli, D. Bosone, L. Middleton, M. Pantziaris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim. This study determines the factors associated with mortality in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods. Patients (n=1 101) with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 50% in relation to the bulb diameter were followed up for a period of 6 to 84 (median 38) months. Stenosis was graded using duplex scanning and expressed as a percentage of the carotid bulb diameter. Clinical and biochemical risk factors were recorded. The end-points were ipsilateral ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death and all cause mortality. Results. In a Cox multivariate analysis 6 factors emerged as independent predictors of risk. Age, male gender, cardiac failure, left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and myocardial ischemia on ECG were associated with increased risk. Antiplatelet therapy was associated with decreased risk. Based on these risk factors a high-risk group consisting of one third of the population with a 40% cumulative cardiovascular death rate and a 66% all cause death rate at 7 years could be identified. The remaining 2/3 consisted of a low-risk group with a 10% cumulative cardiovascular death rate and a 21% all cause death rate at 7 years (P0.05). Conclusion. The methodology and findings from the ACSRS natural history study need to be applied to randomized controlled trials on the value of carotid endarterectomy or stenting in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. They may help refine the indications for intervention in patients with carotid endarterectomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-230
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Angiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2005


  • Carotid stenosis
  • Risk factors
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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